Ocean travel without a boat

Journal of Peter Greenwell

Tag: essays (page 1 of 2)

A Richmond Range adventure

Please do not cite this blog post in a report or paper. It’s not peer-reviewed and is simply an informal account.

Between 23 August and 26 August 2017, I attended a camp for university at Cambridge Plateau, which is part of Richmond Range National Park, approximately 35 km west of Casino. Richmond Range is a dividing point between the watersheds of the Clarence River to the west, and the Richmond River to the east. Both of these rivers are part of what gives the Northern Rivers region its name. (The Tweed River is the other one).

We made camp at the picnic area at Cambridge Plateau, which is ordinarily not legally possible, but the NPWS of NSW has given the uni special dispensation as we were a research organisation and ultimately will be benefiting the national park (and environmental science in general).

Where we were:

Area map for Richomd Range NP

Area map for Richmond Range NP (Source: Google Maps)

The picnic ground is along the ridge, with a very scenic view facing eastward, and Mt. Warning (Wollumbin) could be seen if conditions were clear. Interestingly, the picnic ground is a transition between two biogeographical areas, with dry eucalypt forest to the south, and subtropical rainforest to the north. There are two scenic walks accessible from the picnic area, a short ten minute walk, and a longer, more challenging hour-long one.

The rainforest component of the national park has achieved World Heritage listing, and the visitor’s information signs at the picnic ground state that the entire park has among the highest biodiversity in Australia. During my stay at the picnic site, a lace monitor (Varanus varius) wandered in occasionally, and a red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) was seen along the road to the south, in addition to the myriad of birds that could be heard, especially the sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) with its ear-shattering shriek.

After setting up camp, we were briefed as to the activities and projects we would undertake, then we travelled to our assigned transects (ours was in the eucalyptus forest) and laid out Elliott traps and infrared motion detector cameras. The box traps were baited with a rolled ball of oats, peanut butter and honey.

Where I set up camp:

My tent at the site

My tent at the site

I did not have a great first night. My sleeping bag, which my youngest daughter currently uses as a doona, would not zip up, so I had to use it as a blanket. This was not very successful, as the cold from the ground seeped up through the inflatable mattress and made sleep a patchy affair. The net result was I had about three hours of productive sleep. So I was in a daze a good deal of the following day. Even with a mid-morning nap, I was feeling it throughout the day.

Anyhow, after breakfast, we went back to our designated transects and checked the traps. We retrieved the SD card from the camera, and found it had exhausted its batteries overnight (it operates on 6-12 AA batteries). So we caught nothing on camera there, but we had better luck with the Elliotts. We caught five animals from 25 traps, which gave us a 20% success rate. Four of the animals were the fawn-footed melomys (Melomys cervinipes), a native rodent and one Stuart’s antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a marsupial. I never managed to get a photograph of the antechinus but here’s one of me holding a melomys. As is visible, its tail is longer than its body.

Yours truly and a captured melomys

Yours truly and a captured melomys

Like most rodents, the melomys is an omnivore, and is apparently an adept climber as one we released scurried straight up a tree. An interesting point about the antechinus is that it is semelparous, that is that the male has a single reproductive episode and then dies. The antechinus and a few related species among marsupials are the only mammals in which this occurs. As it happened, this time of year (August, late winter) is their breeding season, so the male antechinus we found was very feisty and highly-strung, and drew blood from its handler.

After checking the traps, we left them closed until the afternoon, where we re-opened them, as our programme called for trapping over two nights. Later that day we ventured down the same transects for a reptile survey, which mostly entailed us turning over logs and large branches. We saw a few reptiles, mainly small skinks and legless lizards. There were centipedes, millipedes and slaters (woodlice) as well. However our reptile count was below expectation, and we theorised this was due to low rainfall over the last month. In Casino, there has been 0.2 mm of rain in the month, which is the lowest in twenty years.

Also on the second day, we examined what bats were caught in the harp traps. The bats in question are microbats, carnivorous mammals generally smaller than their flying fox cousins. In fact, many of them are among the smallest mammals in existence. They are insectivorous, catching their prey on the wing by using echolocation. To facilitate this, many of them have elaborate ears and facial structures that have evolved for the purpose of sending and receiving the high-pitched frequencies.

The majority of echolocating microbats emit frequencies that are well above human ability to hear. We used a device known as a bat detector to hear their calls. This instrument bounces down the signal (often 40-55 kHz) to a frequency humans can hear. This little fellow below made a lot of noise while he was being measured.

The little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) having his particulars measured.

The little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) having his particulars measured.

Unfortunately, a number of captured bats died in the traps after antechinuses climbed into the trap receptacle and ate them. All up, we captured four different species of bat, and all surviving animals were released the following night.

In the evening of the second day we went spotlighting along the road near our transects. The object of this was to survey nocturnal arboreal mammals such as gliders and possums, and other creature we could see, such as owls. Along our transect, which was 250 m in length, we saw three greater gliders (Petauroides volans) in total. This species is renowned for simply staring back at a spotlight, whereas other glider species, and possums, tend to avert their eyes or get out of the way of the beam. The gliders we saw were 25-40 m high in the branches of the Eucalyptus trees upon which they feed. Their yellowish-white eyeshine is rather striking in the nighttime darkness.

I borrowed one of uni’s sleeping bags, and a neighbour gave me a blanket. That night, I slept infinitely better and woke on the third day feeling much happier about things. Firstly, we performed a bird survey along our transects, 20 m in from the road. Didn’t see much, but certainly heard a lot, especially the omnipresent belling from colonies of bell miners (Manorina melanophrys). These birds are problematical in the Australian bush, as they feed on the exudations (lerps) of psyllid bugs (a type of sap-sucking true bug of the insect order Hemiptera). They don’t eat the psyllids, but their territorial nature chases away smaller birds that do. The upshot of this is that psyllids flourish, and trees die from sap deprivation. This is known as Bell Miner Associated Dieback and is an increasing problem in the forests these birds dwell in. They are cryptic to see in the canopy, as their colouration matches the mottled green to yellow leaves of Eucalyptus well. Definitely one of the heard rather than seen creatures of the wild.

We then checked our Elliotts and found two female Stuart’s antechinuses, and two male bush rats (Rattus fuscipes). The latter is a very common species in the wild of Australia, though it avoids urbanised areas, which sets it apart behaviour wise from the exotic black rat (Rattus rattus). Unfortunately, I didn’t get a picture of either of these species. Since our ground-dwelling mammal capture regime was to last only two nights, we took the traps up, as well as the SD cards from the cameras.

Later that day, we had briefings on career paths for environmental scientists as well as an opportunity to draft the introduction and methods of the report that will come out of the camp. That evening we went on the second of our spotlighting excursions, but this time we performed it along a rainforest transect. Alas, we saw nothing, but this is to be expected. While rainforests are often touted as centres of biodiversity, this is largely true in the floral and invertebrate sense. Most of Australia’s arboreal mammals do not dwell in rainforest trees. However, there was incredible epiphyte growth in some of these rainforest trees, with one specimen almost covered in staghorn ferns (Platycerium superbum).

That night, the uni’s sleeping bag unzipped and wouldn’t re-zip properly, so I had a mixed experience. If/when I go camping again, I will definitely apply lessons learned. Before I went to bed, I had a chance to show off my star-gazing skills with a few people, pointing out Aquarius and Capricorn, et al, to them.

Rainforest habitat north of the picnic area

Rainforest habitat north of the picnic area

After one very cold night, we performed another bird survey, with much the same results. To add insult to injury, the zipper on my coat broke, making this outing a chilly enterprise. Then it was time for pack up, and we got everything in order to move out, leaving the picnic area and the environment the way we found it. All rubbish was taken out with us. There were no bins at the site, only two composting toilets, and as I mentioned at the beginning, camping is not usually done here hence the lack of facilities. So I was four days without a shower, and I enjoyed having one when I got home.

Withal, it was an enjoyable and educational experience, despite the cold and personal under-preparation for camping.  It’s certainly given me incentive to look forward to a career in environmental science, and seeing as I’m halfway through the last subject I need to graduate, that reality isn’t far away.


Honours critical review – gothic literature

An essay I did for uni

Review of Danielle Carr’s (2013) Master of Arts thesis Psychological Reflections on Post – Modernist Gothic Literature

The nature of my research is to place the traditional forms of Gothic and dark romantic literature in a contemporary Australian setting, taking the genres away from their archetypal settings of castles, mansions and inserting them into the everyday, workaday world of the Northern Rivers of New South Wales. Danielle Carr’s thesis is titled Psychological Reflections on Post – Modernist Gothic Literature and her research parallels mine as she explored the psychological themes behind Gothic and dark romantic fiction, and separated them from their settings, thus enabling Gothic and dark romantic fiction to be effectively placed in any location. Additionally, Carr’s research includes creative components integrated into the thesis, which is a strategy I will use in my own research.

In spite of the title of Carr’s thesis including postmodernism, there is actual little emphasis devoted to this artistic movement. On the contrary, in form and shape, Carr adheres to traditional narrative structures in her creative works, with clear beginnings and endings, and no unreliable narrator techniques are used. In fact, as Patricia Waugh states, modernism is a fiction of consciousness, where postmodernism is one concerning itself with the fictionality of a text (Waugh cited in Nicol 2009, p. xvii). So postmodernism as a literary style is less interested in the working of the psyche or the soul than it is on the nature of the very text itself, using this definition. Another definition is that postmodernism is a blending of all styles to deliberately defy classification (Abrams 1999, p. 168). There is none of this experimentation in the thesis as Carr concentrates altogether on the nature of the Gothic and the dark romantic being fictions about the conscious. She makes a distinction between Gothic and dark romantic literature, stating that the latter is a subset of the former (Carr 2013, p. 5) and quotes Poe’s Ligeia as a salient example. She suggests that the seminal difference between the two is that dark romanticism features visionary, poetical writing. However, the distinction is often blurred as Dinçer points out that both are fictions of dark dreariness, usually concluding in an unhappy manner (Dinçer 2010, p. 220).

The methods Carr used were composing three creative works of varying length, The Conservatory, Psychosis and The Lady of Tangiers, then writing an exegesis on each, with an eye to psychological theory and how it can be applied to Gothic and dark romantic fiction. Carr worked alone on this thesis and there is no acknowledgement to any other contributor apart from a bibliography listing her sources. Psychological Reflections on Post – Modernist Gothic Literature draws heavily on the psychological theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung (Carr 2013, p.3), particularly Jung’s theories of Self and what Jung called the archetypes: psyche and soul (Stevens 1994) in which Carr identifies as being critically important to Gothic literature. She argues that the literature itself would be ineffective without psychological insight or the application of psychological theory. The literary symbolism in Jung’s theories has been utilised in Carr’s first creative work in the thesis, The Conservatory, is a short piece the author has constructed in a deliberately antiquated style. Within, Carr implements Jung’s archetypes and his theories on the mandala – the circle. The mandala, according to Jung, was emblematic of the what he termed the “psychic transformation” (Jung cited in Stevens 1994). Carr uses this symbolism in her short story to illustrate how a mental state can come full circle. The Conservatory also deals with the matter of the Faustian bargain, where the protagonist is searching for the elixir of youth. Carr cites Goethe’s work as being seminal to the Gothic canon (Goethe cited in Carr 2013, p. 13) and she has her protagonist seemingly forsake his life for the pursuit of the elixir.

In her second creative work, Psychosis, Carr again applies the psychological theories of Freud with regards to the repression of bad memories (Freud cited in Carr 2013, p. 27). In her creative work, Carr suggests that repressed memories are not a natural mental state and there had to be division between the conscious and unconscious. The character of Melinda in Psychosis is redirecting her suppressed memories into “anxiety hysteria” (Carr 2013, p. 28) which Carr suggests is a subset of psychoanalysis. The hidden or obscured memory aspect posits itself into Gothic literature in terms of the unstated or understated, which Carr exemplifies with her mentioning of du Maurier’s Rebecca (du Maurier 1938) in which the titular character is deceased but exerts a palpable and dark influence throughout the novel (Carr 2013, p. 5). So, Carr suggests that what is figuratively buried beneath the surface can be an effective ploy in Gothic and dark romantic literature.

Her third creative work, The Lady of Tangiers, is a novelette that draws upon Freud’s theories of the uncanny (Freud cited in Carr 2013, p. 49). Here, a unrequited love story is made ominous by the environment itself: the Sahara Desert. The visitors to this harsh land are a group of English aristocrats going for a sortie from the safer confines of the Moroccan city of Tangiers (or Tangier as it is more commonly known). Among the sands and the harsh winds, they encounter the supernatural and the romantic interest of the protagonist vanishes. Carr in her exegesis of this story makes comparisons with the colonial experiences of the British in Australia: the strangers in a strange land trope, thus shifting the genre of the story into the postcolonial. She states that Gothic fiction set in lands that have been colonised are by their very nature haunted (Mafe cited in Carr 2013, p. 50) which suggests that the land itself remembers or is capable of sentient deed. This is an important facet to my research as I intend to employ a similar methodology with my own creative work: imbuing the land itself with a slumbering malevolence.

Much of the thesis is a work of juxtaposition and intertextuality; comparing her creative works to previously published material and placing them into the Gothic and dark romantic canon. Interestingly, she makes comparisons between The Conservatory and previously published material insofar as stating that the garden is a place of innocence (Carr 2013, p.17) and that this innocence can be inverted by the application of Gothic and dark romantic tropes, especially those sourced from philosophical literature such as Jung and Freud. Thus, I feel that Carr is making a point here in her thesis that Gothic fiction is largely one of upending order and completion, and replacing it with disorder and unresolved issues. This is a crucial key in my own research as other works I have studied have drawn similar conclusions (Chudy, Cook & Costello 2010).

To summarise, Carr makes repeated references to psychology and symbolism and their importance in Gothic and dark romantic literature. There is stress made that these forms of literature depend heavily upon the usage of symbol and metaphor for their potency. Indeed, Carr draws a conclusion through exegesis and exposition that Gothic fiction would not work without such artifice. At its very core, both forms of fiction are works of psychology, where the fear and dread, or the sin and guilt, are sui generis. I do not believe that Carr has made a totally effective use of her fiction to convey the points she is making as all three works are in need of editing, as there are numerous phrasing and dialogue issues with them. Regardless, the core ideas are firmly there and the exegeses are sound, providing further avenues into deeper research. In summary, this thesis succeeds as an article of research into Gothic and dark romantic fiction, particularly in an Australian setting.


Abrams, M 1999, A Glossary of Literary Terms (7th ed.), Thomson Publishing, New York

Carr, D 2013, ‘Psychological Reflections on Post – Modernist Gothic Literature’, MA thesis, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria

Chudy, T, Cook, N & Costello, M 2010, A ‘ruined or fractured’ sublime: voice, identity and agency in reading and writing the gothic/noir in subtropical regional Australia, Strange Bedfellows: Refereed Conference Papers of the 15th Annual AAWP Conference, 2010

Dinçer, F 2010, The light and dark Romantic features in Irving, Hawthorne and Poe, The Journal of International Social Research, 3(10), pp. 218-224

du Maurier, D 1938, Rebecca, Victor Gollancz, London

Nicol, B 2009, The Cambridge introduction to postmodern fiction, Cambridge University Press, New York

Stevens, A 1994, Jung, a very short introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford

One night at the table (play)

A play I did for uni


TRAVIS A welder by trade in his late forties, loves his
cricket and his footy. Working class traditionalist.

LISA His nineteen year old daughter, first year uni student
Progressive minded.


A dining room with a long oblong table in the centre. The table is set for a meal for two. A single fluorescent light on the ceiling. Sparse furnishings – some paintings of nature scenes on the walls, a wall unit with associated knick-knacks. There is a kitchen in the background.


It is dinner time. Light through kitchen window gives the impression of twilight.


AT RISE: (LISA is bringing two plates of food from the kitchen to the dining room table. TRAVIS is sitting at the table already, busy with a mobile phone.)

(Reaches table)
If I have to cook at Christmas, I’m gonna scream.

(still looking down at phone)
Hmm? Well, we can’t eat grass for Chrissy, can we?

No, but we can have something cold. You know? Salads, cold meat, rolls and stuff. We don’t need to cook. You’re too stingy to buy air-con for this place.

(looks up at LISA as she sets the plates down)
Stingy? You know how much a decent reverse cycle air-con costs? To say nothing of the power bill. So much for Tony nuking the carbon tax – freakin’ bills keep going up. Nothing’s getting cheaper.

(sits down)
More reason to have cold stuff. You don’t want high bills, then don’t make me cook at Chrissy. I buy cold stuff from Coles – coleslaw, green salad mix, mesclun and a bunch of sliced meat, and we’re good to go.

(shaking his head)
Bullshit. That sounds like a granny’s Sunday lunch at the nursing home.

Think of the environment, Dad. If I don’t cook at Chrissy, there’s less carbon polluting the air, making summer hotter. Everyone wins.

Except for me. I get rabbit food for Chrissy. (stops eating and glances at LISA) What the hell is a “mesclun?”

It’s NOT rabbit rood. Look, you don’t get enough vitamin C and iron, Dad. All that shit you eat for lunch now, pies and sausage rolls and so on. Unhealthy crap, every bit of it. Dr. Gordon at uni, he’s a geologist and he says that pies have thickener added to them to bulk them out. That stuff’s carcinogenic.

It’s what?

And you’re making me cook in forty degree weather. All because you won’t buy an air-con. Well, I’m bringing in that big fan from out in the garage and I’ll be gunning it all day if I have to slave away in there.

I don’t think it works.
(HE chews, and stares down at his food)
What’s this purple stuff?

It’s cabbage.

Purple cabbage? Really? I think you’ve added some of your Greenie chemicals to it. I’m gonna end up a socialist now, aren’t I?

(shakes head slowly)
Dad! It’s a cultivar of cabbage that’s purple. It’s the same damned thing as regular cabbage. Brassica oleracea, the cabbage of yore. Same stuff, trust me. Another teacher at uni, Professor Wilkins, he teaches calculus and says cabbage’s iron content is as good as spinach. There you go, an expert, so it’s good for you, green or purple.

You’re not making this shit for Chrissy, I can tell you that right now.

Shit? My cooking is shit?

(covers his mouth apologetically)
Well…no, just this cabbage.

But it’s still something I cooked! Me! Did you call mum’s cooking shit?

No. Of course not…um. I’m just saying I prefer cabbage that’s the right colour.

Try it.
(emphatically points at her father’s food with a fork).
Just give it a go. I bet you like it.

All right, it’s good.

Told you. We’re having it for Chrissy.

Yeah, but you gotta cook it, don’t you? Slaving away in the kitchen.

Boiling vegetables isn’t the same thing as roasting stuff in an oven. I can make cabbage, toss some salads together, some nice sliced meat, like ham, mortadella, pastrami, some hot English mustard, cranberry sauce. What do you think of that?


If I get all the meats and salad vegetables Christmas Eve, it’ll only take like ten minutes to sort out Chrissy lunch. There’s this guy in America, Doctor Oz, a world-famous medico. He says that doing things like slaving away in the kitchen isn’t a productive use of your time. He’s an expert on health, so he would know all about time and motion, right? Makes perfect sense to me.

Yeah, he sounds like a genius. Still don’t think it’s right not to cook for Chrissy. It’s a tradition, you know? We’ve been cooking big baked dinners and lunches for Christmas for donkey’s years. What would your mum think of not having a roast dinner for lunch? Think of what she’d say?

She’d say “buy a damn air conditioner, you cheapskate”

They cost thousands for a decent one. Already told you that. I’m not made of money so think of my bank balance, please.

Get a halfway decent one then. I’m still getting that fan out of the shed if you’re gonna make me cook.

It’s un-Australian not to have a roast at Chrissy. Like not having Coon in the fridge.

Plenty of Australians have salads and cold meals at Chrissy. Coon cheese is nasty, and it’s racist. Just ask that guy in Toowoomba.

(gives LISA a long, hard stare)
No true Australian has cold meals at Chrissy, Lisa. It’s completely not dinky-di.
(TRAVIS turns to the audience)
I just can’t understand it with her. This family has had Christmas dinners for ages, since I don’t know when. Nice, hot, big Chrissy lunches and dinners. Sometimes turkey, sometimes roast beef or ham, but I gotta say, I don’t care for turkey much. The Yanks love their turkey, but I reckon it tastes like old mutton. But either way, we don’t have cold stuff for Chrissy. I don’t care if it’s summer here and the wallpaper’s falling off the walls – it’s how we do things. How we’ve always done it. It’s our way and there’s no reason to change it. We cook for Chrissy. It’s too easy, you know? You don’t fix things that aren’t broken, and a good old fashioned Chrissy lunch, with ham, taters, asparagus and stuff is how it’s good. Not damned salad and sliced meat from Coles’ Deli. If you want that, have it for lunch some other day, but not Christmas Day. Traditions are traditions for a cause and there’s no godly reason to change them.
(turns back to LISA)
It’s not ridgey-didge, Lisa. It’s not what any true Australian would do.

I guess we’re not true Australians then. I’m embarrassed to be an Australian sometimes anyway, Dad.
(LISA turns to the audience)
People booing champion Aboriginal football players, our speaker of Parliament on the take and all that. Our manufacturing base is no more, everything has been outsourced or sent overseas. Everything! And people need to recognise Indigenous Australians in the Constitution! Harmonisation of the people! Reconciliation. What Dad wants me to do is indicative of the old-ways zeitgeist. The woman cooks, the man sits and watches, goddamnit! If only Mum had stood up for herself more with him, but no…old school she was, pathological housewife, born female to be nothing else than a sow-breeder, kitchen slave and dogsbody. At least she had the sense to finally realise her place in life was tainted. I wonder if she’ll even call us this Christmas from wherever she is now. I just know Dad spoke shit about her cooking too. Well, no more!
(turns back to TRAVIS)
I’m gonna go get that fan. If it blows up then you watch – I won’t need to cook anything this Christmas.
(LISA gets up and EXITS through the kitchen)

(TRAVIS grunts and returns to his mobile phone)
I wanted to put ten bucks on that four year old I saw at Rosehill, whatever it’s bloody name was. How the hell do I place a bet again?…What do you mean, no credit? I just got paid yesterday…ah stuff it, I’ll go down to the TAB. Can’t beat the old way.

(LISA returns to the dining room, carrying a tall metal fan. She puts it in front of her father and plugs it in to a power point.)
Watch this thing conk out!
(SHE turns on the fan. It starts up smoothly, oscillating strongly.)

Looks alright to me. Look at it go. If it wasn’t gonna work, it would’ve stopped by now.

I thought you said this probably wouldn’t work? It looks like it’s never been used to me. Probably hasn’t been.

(another long and hard stare to LISA)
Are you gonna cook Chrissy lunch?

Hmm…yeah why not?

Good girl, I knew tradition would win out in this house…what’s a mesclun?

Honours coursework – annotated bibliography

Something I did for uni

Wells H 1894, The Red Room, The Idler, March 1896

H. G. Wells’ short story stresses that fear is an internalisation, and that hauntings exist only in the mind of those who take their fears with them to an ostensibly haunted location. This brief and seminal work is an important addition to the Gothic canon as for practically the first time in literature, there were no outward forces involved in the fear and horror experienced by the protagonist – no ghosts or phantoms.

This short story is useful to research as it much as a work on psychology as it is Gothic horror. The protagonist’s fears trump his reason and rationality, blinding him to the putative reality that there is nothing in the Red Room other than he himself. This inwardness and loss of control is integral to the Gothic genre as it is a fiction of emotion and solitude in the face of a frightening scenario.
This work is also relevant to my research as it demonstrates that fear, as an internalisation, is not limited to dungeons and mansions, in spite of the setting. It shows through narrative that the sensation of lonely fear is apt in any situation or environment, therefore it is an appropriate work for research and the purposes of intertextuality.

Turcotte G 1998, ‘Australian Gothic’, in Mulvey Roberts, M (ed), The Handbook to Gothic Literature, Macmillan, Basingstoke

Within this book chapter, Turcotte discusses that the innate nature of the vast Australian landscape had a daunting and oppressive quality to the European colonisers upon their arrival. Thus, Turcotte argues, this made the Australian setting ideal for Gothic literary works. This argument is tempered by the exposition of early literary failures to account for Australia’s Indigenous people, and as Turcotte states, the country was too new and immature for early writers to consider it in possession of a Gothic legacy.

This trend of ignoring the original inhabitants and their relationship to their land continued in Gothic literature, Turcotte points out, until fairly recently, with the advent of newer fictional approaches and thinking in the 1960s, namely in the works of Patrick White, Thomas Keneally and Frank Moorhouse.
Turcotte’s research is chronological and features mostly creative works, beginning with the earliest Gothic fiction by Barron Field in 1823 (a collected body of poetry) through to the writers emerging on the scene at the time this chapter was written (1998). It is useful and relevant to research as it gives a clear and concise chronological outline of Gothic fiction in Australia.

Dinçer, F 2010, The light and dark Romantic features in Irving, Hawthorne and Poe, The Journal of International Social Research, 3(10), pp. 218-224

Dinçer argues that American dark romanticism is a natural evolution from the literary Romantic movement that began in Europe in the 1820s. The author has chosen three seminal works of American dark romanticism specifically to illustrate this profession. While doing so, Dinçer delineates what he perceives to be the difference between light and dark romanticism. He states that Washington Irving’s Rip Van Winkle is an example of light romanticism; full of hope, light and colour. Dinçer cites Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter as dark romanticism, due to the underlying and pervasive feelings of guilt and sin. The author also examines the various horror stories of Edgar Allan Poe and their themes of gloominess, fate and sad introspection.

This paper is of use to research as it clearly outlines the themes and moods that these three American authors used in their works. Dinçer argues that dark romantic fiction is one of bleak revelation, where new knowledge leads to grim realisation and the general atmosphere is one of brooding loneliness in mind and spirit. As such, this work will provide a valuable resource as to the methods employed in crafting dark romantic works.

Correa, D & Owens, W (eds) The Handbook to Literary Research, Routledge, London

The editors of this book have compiled a comprehensive resource on the various methods of literary research. The purpose of this book is to guide students and researchers through logical steps in methodology to produce accurate, concise and well-argued papers on any literary subject. The methods used by the editor include compiling a step-by-step approach to literary research, employing the talents of various authors across several different fields, including interdisciplinary work and editing texts.

Apart from traditional printed sources, this book also deals with the ever-growing abundance of research material that is available online, with strategies specifically written to best utilise the internet and electronic databases without becoming lost in the virtual world. The book is especially useful as it is a purposely written guidebook on research, and gives clear tools on how to plan and edit a thesis or paper, and strategies on presentations. It demonstrates methods and plans for proper and effective research and as such is both highly relevant and of great use.

Chudy, T, Cook, N & Costello, M 2010, A ‘ruined or fractured’ sublime: voice, identity and agency in reading and writing the gothic/noir in subtropical regional Australia, Strange Bedfellows: Refereed Conference Papers of the 15th Annual AAWP Conference, 2010

In this paper, the three authors demonstrate that the landscape and degraded environment of the Northern Rivers is a prime setting for Gothic literature. They draw upon their own experiences as residents in the area, as well as from Australian creative literature and non-fictional sources. In the paper, the authors draw the conclusion that Gothic literature is a work of unresolved emotions and unsettled relationships with their environments. Thus, the Northern Rivers, with its huge swathes of cleared forest, sundered Indigenous tenure and humid summer heat is a prime setting for Gothic literature.

This paper is of great benefit to research as it demonstrates that Gothic literature can exist and flourish beyond its traditional confines in European fiction. The authors cite a variety of Australian works (including their own) that ably show that Australian landscapes, and in particular, the subtropical regions, are choice places fertile with possibilities for Gothic fiction. The findings of the authors show that there is much yet to uncover in this genre and is ripe for further study. In summary, this paper is eminently useful for research as it explicitly demonstrates through exegesis and exposition that the Northern Rivers is a productive location for Gothic literature.

Hogle, J (ed) 2002, The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Literature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

This book traces the history of Gothic literature from its early days in French and British writing to the modern postcolonial period. The editor has sourced different scholars whose specialities lay in differing eras and sub-genres of Gothic literature and has compiled a comprehensive chronology of the fiction. The underlying theme that the various authors have highlighted is humanity versus the unknowable. Common is the idea that foreign places and climates are as alien and oppressive to the newcomer as the darkest dungeon or dustiest mansion. This aspect is useful as it shows that Gothic fiction can readily transcend the oft-held illusion that it is about haunted castles and dungeons.
There is a chapter on postcolonial Gothic literature which deals with the literary theory concept of “Other” and how Europeans viewed their subjugated peoples and the landscapes in which they dwelt. This is of relevance to research as the Northern Rivers is a region that was inhabited (and still is) by Indigenous people and their cultures for many millennia before the advent of European colonialism. The sense of “Other” is strong in the region and this book, particularly the chapter on postcolonialism will be of tremendous benefit to research.

Dawson, C 2006, A practical guide to research methods, How To Books, Oxford

This book aims to guide a student through the research process using a chosen methodology. It is similar in scope to the Correa & Owens book annotated earlier, though it is directed at entry level and gives instruction in more basic English. The author presents the book in logical order, from what question is the researcher trying to answer through to ethic concerns in research. It differs also from the Correa & Owens book in that there are chapters on interviewing techniques and constructing questionnaires, with less emphasis on online research methodologies.

This work is not as useful as the Correa & Owens book as it lacks that book’s comprehensive treatment of research methodologies. It also places less stress upon traditional book and journal researching methods in favour of more interactive approaches such as focus groups and face to face interviews. However, it is a smaller and more compact volume than the Correa & Owens book and will have some use as an adjunct to that work.

Lovecraft H 1926, The Outsider, Weird Tales, April 1926

The Outsider has been interpreted as Lovecraft’s setting himself against the world, or placing himself beyond human company while obviously still desiring it. He is outside, but wishes to be within, among his fellow people, but it fated to be shunned or misunderstood. While this seminal short story is not often regarded as Gothic fiction, there exists within it many of the themes and tropes of the genre; loneliness, unease of mood, unresolved tragedy and a brooding melancholy air that pervades the story. The Outsider truly is a story about a human being totally and utterly alone, and this aspect gives it a weighty sense of darkness.

This story has great relevance and practical use in research as it is subject to varied interpretation with regards to Gothic fiction themes. It could be seen as a dream and or as allegory; a being that has spent an eternity existing in tedium suddenly sparked into some kind of existentialist motion and a search for meaning and truth.

Smith, A 2007, Gothic literature, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh

This book is an adjunct to the Hogle book mentioned previously. It differs from that work in many ways, not the least of which is its simpler English style and even stricter adherence to a timeline. The book begins with a multi-page chronology, listing what the author views as key works of Gothic fiction by year, both in novel form and those of shorter format. Using this tightly-formatted chronology, the author compiles a history of the fiction dating from the 18th century.

There is a preponderance of attention given to European and American works with little examined from elsewhere in the world, however, this book is also aimed at students researching Gothic fiction whereas the Hogle work is a more formal “reader’s companion”. This aspect makes it both relevant to research and of great use, and the amount of student resources included in the book make up for its shortcomings with regard to concentrating on American and European Gothic fiction.

Hawthorne, N 1850, The Scarlet Letter, Ticknor, Reed & Fields, Boston

This work by Hawthorne questions the basic nature of sin and guilt as well as one of the hallmark works of dark romanticism. The author sourced the basic ideas for this story from the events surrounding the Salem witch trials in 17th century New England and within he postulates that guilt and sin are concepts that can eat away at a person. It is also a work of redemption and rebirth, with the lead character attaining salvation by the story’s end. The Scarlet Letter is an integral work in the dark romantic canon, and demonstrates that darkness and danger lie within the psyche, in a framework of a society consumed with the expunging of sin and guilt.

This story is invaluable to research as it clearly shows through deed and narrative that guilt and sin are destructive forces to the individual as well as the society constrained by them. Additionally, there are themes of revenge and envy throughout, showing that these self-generated emotions are internalisations and can exist independent of the environment.

Honours proposal – Gothic fiction in a modern Australian setting

This is the honours proposal I did to get accepted into BA(Hons) this year.

For my honours year, I propose to both research Gothic fiction in a modern Australian setting and write a story in this genre. According to Gerry Turcotte, in the eyes of the colonial British, the Australian continent was a grotesque land, peopled by monsters, and was the dungeon of the world (Turcotte 1998). While this view certainly had racial undertones, it also accentuated a remote and sinister nature that the early colonisers would have felt. I wish to explore this remoteness in greater detail, employing the genre methods of Gothic fiction and dark romanticism. This fits in with the supervisor’s stated interest of the role of the Gothic in Australian fiction.

My aim with this research project is to explore the core concepts of Gothic fiction in a contemporary Australian setting, namely the Northern Rivers of New South Wales, in that behind the everyday world of the Australian twenty-first century, there is scope for the dark subtleties of the unknown and supernatural. There is also scope for exploration into the genre of dark romanticism made popular by the nineteenth century writers such as Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne. According to one book, this genre is seemingly held in higher regard than Gothic fiction, as when Gothic literature is mentioned, there is a flippant tendency to classify it all as “ghosts, demons, trapdoors, castles” where works with a dark romantic theme such as Wuthering Heights or Absalom, Absalom! are held in higher regard (Thompson cited in Novak 1976, pp 516-517). Dark romanticism fictions are works of melancholy, loneliness, introspection, loss and so forth, and frequently depict outcasts from society (University of Delaware 2011).

For a previous undergraduate class, I wrote a 5000 word story conflating the Gothic and dark romantic genres, where I used two previously published works, The Outsider by H.P. Lovecraft and the Time Machine by H. G. Wells, as inspiration in a pastiche (Lovecraft 1926, Wells 1895, Booth 2016). The emphasis in my story was on the loneliness of the two characters and the innate loneliness of the worlds they found themselves in and there were additional questions raised as to character identity and love. So, I have a solid grounding in being able to produce creative works in these two genres.

My research therefore will be about bringing these two genres into a contemporary Australian setting. There is more than adequate potential for quality research here, particularly using Turcotte’s paper as an entry point, which will lead to contemporary works by Australian authors in this field, such as Helen Hodgman, Christopher Koch and Chloe Hooper, and beyond. With this, I believe that my story and exegesis will be well-placed in the realm of Australian Gothic fiction, and will add to it positively.

Booth P 2016, The Outsider and the Eloi, unpublished manuscript

Lovecraft H 1926, The Outsider, Weird Tales, April 1926

Novak M 1976, The Gothic imagination: Essays in dark romanticism (book review) , Nineteenth Century Fiction, 30(4), pp. 516-519

Turcotte G 1998, ‘Australian Gothic’, in Mulvey Roberts, M (ed), The Handbook to Gothic Literature, Macmillan, Basingstoke

University of Delaware 2011, Dark romanticism, University of Delaware Library, viewed 1 February 2016, http://www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/exhibits/romanticism/

Wells H 1895, The Time Machine, William Heinemann, London

Measuring Trees and Forests. Practical exercise 1: Plane survey

A paper I did for uni back in 2013


On 2 April, 2013, a plane survey was conducted of a mixed species rainforest plantation on private property at Wollongbar, northern New South Wales. The plane survey was undertaken by walking around the perimeter of the plantation and taking measurements from one survey point tree to the next tree using a variety of instruments. The data was then taken back to a computer laboratory at Southern Cross University, entered and analysed. A conclusion was derived that it is an accurate and precise method to measure the perimeter of a forest stand, but is dependent upon observational acuity and familiarity with the instruments.


The aim of the plane survey was to accurately assess the external boundaries of the plantation and to familiarise students with the concepts of a plane survey, and in the usage of measuring instruments and recording and calculating methods. Previous surveys have been conducted at this location and the scientific environment is fairly well established. The plane survey is so named as the mapping is represented on a flat piece of paper, the plane (West, 2009).

The survey was performed on private property, “Pamplemousse Park”, located in a rural area in Wollongbar, a town approximately 13 kilometres east of the regional centre Lismore, in northern New South Wales .

The plantation was on sloped terrain, with the slope generally ascending toward the northwest. The soils appear to be of the Ferrosol variety, although no analysis was performed. Two separate tracks sub-divided the plantation into three unequal sections. A variety of sub-tropical rainforest species have been planted including Elaeocarpus grandis, Agathis robusta, Podocarpus elatus, Araucaria bidwilli, A. cunninghamii, Syzygium moorei and Argyrodendron trifoliolatum. There was a considerable amount of saprophytic fungi present amongst the ground litter, predominantly of the shelf fungi variety though there were some jelly fungi present on log and branch detritus.

The plantation has an irregular shape, and is surrounded by tracts of macadamia trees growing in orchards, with the species either Macadamia tetraphylla or M. integrifolia which are the two commercially raised for their nuts in Australia. These tracts are not a part of the plantation and do not figure any further in this report.


The students were divided into three groups. Each group, numbering from three to four members, were given a prismatic compass, a clinometer and a 100 metre measuring tape. Results were recorded on a printed pro forma. The boundary of the plantation was determined by choosing trees that were on the periphery and were clearly on the apex of a bend or at an equidistant point between two such apices. From tree to tree, the distance between was measured, and the bearing in degrees (from north) was recorded. The slope angle between the trees was measured and this was achieved by using the clinometer at the measuring tree and taking a reading of the foot of the target tree, with consideration given to the height of the measurement-taker. At each successive tree, a back bearing was recorded to the previous tree, which under ideal situations would be 180 degrees but this was not often the case in real conditions. Where the survey intersected the tracks, the points were taken from the corners of the tracks (Southern Cross University, 2013). The area within the tracks was not counted for statistical purposes .

Only live trees were considered when establishing the boundary. Dead trees on the periphery and other non-tree flora were not counted. These were surveyed around and only the actual planted area was counted (Southern Cross University, 2013). Once the initial perimeter was surveyed, the two tracks within the plantation were measured for length, width and slope angle.

In the university laboratory, the results were collated and entered into Microsoft Excel. The data were tabulated into fields thusly: survey point, forward bearing, back bearing, slope angle, and slope distance. From these data a variety of means and distances were obtained using established mensuration formulae (West, 2009).


In the laboratory, the data were analysed using a variety of published formulae (West, 2009). Microsoft Excel was used to perform all calculations and analyses and a map was constructed using the in-built scatter plot function. Figure 1 shows the derived map.

plane survey

Figure 1. Map of the plantation derived from the plane survey

Each of the plotted points in the figure represent one surveyed tree. As can be seen, the beginning and end points do not intersect. There was an observational error for part of the walk around survey in which one of the students misread the compass readings. This was later amended both in situ and in the laboratory. Even with these corrections, there is still a reasonably sized error. The method used to survey the perimeter has an innate and variable lack of precision due to human error, greater than using more sophisticated methods such as laser rangefinders, global positioning systems and theodolites. However, it has been suggested that where a highly precise map is not required, the usage of handheld compasses and clinometers, etc, is acceptable (West, 2009).

The lack of precision was most obvious with the results found for the closing distance and close error. The end result for the plane survey was an error of 14 metres in 628.5 metres measured. This can be represented as being one metre away from the true figure for every 44.8 metres measured. This figure has been derived by using a formula that can be found on page 130 of Tree and Forest Measurement, 2nd Edition, by West. Future surveys would be expected to be undertaken with a greater deal of precision due to the increased familiarity with the techniques and the instruments used. Continual cross-checking for errors as the survey was being walked would also be useful.


The plane survey method to measure the perimeter of a forest stand generally gives a precise and true reckoning, however this is dependent upon observational skill and the instruments used. In the case with the plantation at Pamplemousse Park, there was a mostly accurate reading, and the fundamental principles of the plane survey were both understood in regards to utility and calculation. Further practice is required to achieve more accurate results.


Southern Cross University (2013). Practical exercise 1: Plane survey. (Lecture notes).

West, P.W. (2009). Tree and Forest Measurement (2nd ed.). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag

Effective water economics

Another piece I did for Environmental Economics in Uni

For millennia, it could be argued that most people have thought of water as a perpetual and free resource. Possibly, only those who live in dry and/or desert locations would have put some sort of true cost of water and its availability. A price on water doesn’t necessarily have to be a financial one (Asafu-Adjaye, 2005). Fresh water has been declared in some quarters a finite resource, or at least a non-renewable one.

Some parts of the world have societies that have learned to put a price on their scarce water by adopting novel means to collect it. For example, the people of El Tofo in northern Chile use mesh net collectors to capture fog (Bridgman, Dragovich & Dodson, 2008). Rainfall in this part of the world is extremely scant, averaging close to 1-2mm a year. Figure 1 depicts several of these collectors.

In other parts of the world, fresh water is an abundant, and occasionally troublesome resource. The frequent flooding of the Ganges in Bangladesh or the mudslides of the Philippines and Central America are examples of the abundance of fresh water in certain locations of the world where it can become problematic. So, the price of water can be viewed in not only monetary terms.

For the longest time, water was generally seen as a free and eternal resource, particularly to those who had it in abundance, i.e, those who lived in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical rainforest areas. Although this view is generally changing, many still see water as a natural bounty. Most of the world’s water is in the ocean and while it cannot be used for most living purposes, widespread desalination is beginning to occur. Diamonds are a rarity, and by nature a scarce item everywhere they are found.

Life as we know it cannot exist without water. Plant life requires water for its food generation via photosynthesis (Reese et al, 2010) and without plants, most life on Earth would not exist. Without water added to the environment, there would be a great loss of life across all organisms with very catastrophic results. Water has been rightly described as the backbone of life, and it is one of the necessities for all life, along with food.

As said earlier, water is unevenly distributed across the world. It is intrinsically difficult to value something that is a rarity in one location, yet abundant (or super-abundant) in another. So while water may be valued as a scarce commerce in a desert nation or location, it may be seen as a free resource where it is commonplace, as in rainforest lands. It is this factor of uneven distribution that makes the valuing of water difficult. Water also crosses international frontiers, which further adds to the complications of valuation.

Integrated Water Resources Management was first formalised by the United Nations after the Mar del Plata global water conference in 1977 (UN, 2014). It was becoming clear to society that without proper management, water resources were being over-exploited especially across international frontiers. An excellent example of what occurs when water resources are not managed effectively or of they’re overtly exploited is the Aral Sea in Central Asia, which was allowed to dry up due to inflow diversion for agriculture.


Asafu-Adjaye, J. (2005). Environmental Economics for Non-Economists (2nd ed.). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.

Bridgman, H., Dragovich, D., & Dodson, J. (2008). The Australian Physical Environment. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press

Reece, J., Taylor, M., Simon, E., Dickey, J. (2012). Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

United Nations. (2014). Integrated Water Resource Management [web site]. Retrieved 14 May, 2014 from http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/iwrm.shtml

Can the market work effectively as a way of managing the environment?

A short environmental economics piece I did for uni

For the market to be effective in a way of managing the environment, the environment needs to be seen as a product that is saleable, something that has both appeal to the consumer and be profit-oriented to the seller. Currently in Australia, the present Coalition Government is mooting the repeal of the various carbon taxes introduced by the previous Labor Government (environment.gov.au, 2014). This could be argued as a “poor sell” of trying to market an environmental issue to the public, irrespective of its benefits. It could also be argued that the various carbon taxes were regressive in nature, as they impact upon low and middle income earners (Tahir, 2013).

However, the emissions of carbon dioxide by business and individuals can be seen as a “tragedy of the commons” (Hardin, 1968). One example in the New York Times put it that when Arthur goes for a drive, Zelda suffers (Dubner & Levitt, 2008). So while a tax on emissions is currently seen as burdensome by the present Coalition Government, there is the issue that people and business will continually (and innocently) contribute to ever-increasing emissions. So in summary, the environment can factor into the market, so long as the “bottom line” is not affected.

It is relevant due to the plethora of finite resources that humans depend on for their daily needs and wants. A good example as illustrated in Figure 1, is the production of palm oil in Indonesia. Vast swathes of rainforest in Borneo are being clear-felled to make way for African oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). Figure 1 depicts the exponential rise in harvesting and export of this commodity – at the expense of its rainforests and all organisms that depend on it.

As mentioned in question one, indirect taxes such as the GST are considered regressive taxes due to their perceived impact on lower and middle income people (Tahir, 2013). Prices for most commodities and services rise with only a few exceptions for basic food items, some health services and tuition fees (ATO, 2014). In Australia’s case, personal taxes were lowered and a host of sales taxes and tariffs were abolished in an attempt to offset the addition of the GST. The upshot is, neither demand nor supply were affected overmuch as there was a zeroing out effect.

The environment can be included in the markets by making it attractive to buyers. This can be achieved with such ventures as ecotourism – visiting national parks and areas of notable scenery, purchasing ecologically sustainable products that are attractively packaged (for example, brightly decorated clothing made out of sustainably grown hemp, figure 2) or educating society in the benefits of buying products and services that are demonstrably “environmentally friendly”, such as solar water heaters, compost bins and “fair trade” products such as farm-grown coffee.


ATO (2014). When to charge GST and when not to. Retrieved 14 March, 2014 from http://www.ato.gov.au/Business/GST/When-to-charge-GST-(and-when-not-to)/

Environment.gov.au (2014). Repealing the carbon tax. Retrieved 14 March, 2014 from http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/cleaner-environment/clean-air/repealing-carbon-tax

Dubner, S., & Levitt, S. (2008). The Not-So-Free Ride. New York Times. Retrieved 14 March, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/20/magazine/20wwln-freakonomics-t.html?pagewanted=1&_r=2

Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162(1968): 1243-1248.

Tahir, A. (2013). Think tank: GST is a “regressive tax”. Free Malaysia Today News. Retrieved 14 March, 2014 from http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2013/10/26/think-tank-gst-is-an-additional-tax/

Critical review – exegesis

An essay I did for uni. This is an exegesis for the story posted here.

My story is a pastiche of two separate previously published works, the novella The Time Machine by the English author H. G. Wells (Wells 1895) and The Outsider, a short story by the American author H. P. Lovecraft (Lovecraft 1926). The text I used for The Time Machine is the British Heinemann edition which differs textually from the American Holt edition (Bergonzi 1960).

The story is a pastiche in the sense that it imitates the style and form of these two stories, as well as the themes inherent in them (Greene et al. 2012). As such, it is also a work of writing back, a form of intertextuality. The moods I wished to convey in the story were alienation from society at large, sundered romance, and the deep oppressive landscapes that were common in Gothic horror fiction. With the 4000 word draft, I explored differing viewpoints, first and third person, and with Wells’ character of Weena I used both techniques, where for the Outsider, I remained in first person for his entire narrative.

One experiment I used was to convey Weena’s first person narrative in italics, but with advice from the assessor, I deemed this approach to be unsuccessful. Likewise, shifting tenses from past to present with Weena’s different viewpoints also did not work effectively in the story. I struggle with tenses in the course of my writing in any case, and this extra piece of literary flair added a level of unneeded complexity. So, in the final draft, I shifted all the tenses to past and removed the italics.

In creating the pastiche, I needed to look at what the strengths were of both stories. The Time Machine can be read as a socio-political discourse on the differences between the working class and the privileged who live off the former’s labour. The Outsider is a story that posits the existence of a lonely being, what English author William Hope Hodgson termed the “abhuman”, used first in Hodgson’s novel The Night Land to describe those who live in complete separation from normal human society (Hodgson 1912). This is to say the Outsider ordinarily dwells beyond all human contact and companionship, and indeed in Lovecraft’s story, when he encounters other people, they react in fright and flee from him as if he is something grotesque.

My Outsider was written with similar intent. He is a nameless entity who exists as an abhuman, separated from any lasting or meaningful contact. I stress meaningful here as his meeting with Weena is more enigmatic for him than any other emotional aspect in the end. He questions what and who she is, but eventually accepts she is something transient traversing his world. One of the keystone characteristics of Lovecraft’s writing was that he purposefully left many things unexplained, frequently using words such as “unmentionable”, “inexplicable” or “indescribable” (Smith 2011). Therefore the Outsider, what he is and what he may represent is mostly up to reader interpretation through allusion and mood, something I believe I have achieved with my story.

The character of Weena is not so nebulous. Wells describes her and her core nature solidly in The Time Machine and speculates on the evolutionary history of her race, the Eloi (Wells 1895). He depicts her and the Eloi as simple-minded hedonists however Wells goes beyond this modest type analysis with Weena once the Time Traveller rescues her. He states earlier in the novella that the Eloi have a distinct lack of interest in him after initial curiosity (Wells 1895, pp. 41-42) yet Weena remains a faithful companion until the end, sleeping in the crook of his arm.

This possibly indicates that the latent humanity in the Eloi has been awakened, and the desire for on-going love and attention goes outside of any hedonistic need. In several places through the novella, the Time Traveller puts Weena before more urgent concerns. In fact, one scholar suggests that Weena almost derails the novella (Sayeau 2005) by distracting the Time Traveller from his quest to restore his machine and leave her time.

Perhaps then Wells was inhibited by mores and self-censorship to want to go beyond the child-like clinging nature he imbued her with. I have gone some way to redress this lack of adult feminine character by giving Weena a voice. She is in love with the Time Traveller, whom she names the “Tall Man”. It is a new and wondrous experience to her and when the Time Traveller apparently abandons her in the forest fire, she feels heartbreak and rage at his supposed betrayal. She further laments that she and the Time Traveller never connected at a romantic level due to them misinterpreting each other.

Her character at this point ties in with that of the Outsider as they are both people who are figuratively and emotionally lost. One of the key points the assessor made with the draft was the two stories needed to be tied in together more effectively and with my edits for the final draft, I emphasised the abject loneliness each of the two characters felt trapped in dark worlds they did not understand. I stressed this characteristic as it is one of the hallmarks of Gothic fiction (Gamer 2006). Where the Outsider’s loneliness was something he knew he was fated to have, there was a momentary need for companionship when he saw Weena.

Her loneliness derived from being outside of her comfort zone, away from the river and the huge decrepit building she called home. In the Outsider’s world she had an opportunity to go somewhere else, a choice not possible to the Outsider. He understands then, or at least theorises, that his world and hers are polar opposites. Unlike the Time Traveller, the Outsider perceives Weena to be an adult and thinks of her as a woman by the story’s end. Accordingly, he believes his own world to be an invention of his psyche and Weena’s presence to be symbolic of things denied to him.

In summary, this story was difficult to write and revise as my sympathies lay with the character of Weena. There was no emotional detachment in her nature like the Outsider possesses. She is deeply emotional and empathetic, and readily hurt and confused by the new feelings the Time Traveller placed upon her. In the end they were not that dissimilar, as there was nothing else like them either in her world or his. They were both outsiders.


Bergonzi, B 1960, The publication of The Time Machine 1894-5, The Review of English Studies, vol. 11(41), pp. 42-51

Gamer, M 2006, Romanticism and the Gothic: Genre, Reception and Canon Formation, Cambridge University Press, UK

Greene, R,  Cushman, S,  Cavanagh, C, Ramazani, J, Rouzer, P, Feinsod, H, Marno, D & Slessarev, A (eds) 2012, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, Princeton University Press, New Jersey

Hodgson, W 1912, The Night Land, Eveleigh Nash & Grayson, London

Lovecraft, H 1926, The Outsider, Weird Tales, April

Sayeau, M 2005, H.G. Wells’s The Time Machine and the “odd consequence” of progress, Contemporary Justice Review, vol. 8(4), pp. 431-445

Smith, P 2011, Re-visioning Romantic-era Gothicism: An introduction to key works and themes in the study of H.P. Lovecraft, Literature Compass, vol. 8(11), pp. 830-839

Wells, H 1895, The Time Machine, William Heinemann, London

The sociology of rural mental health

An essay I did for uni

The first paper was published in the journal Advances in Mental Health in January 2015, and the lead writer is Rebecca Barton, a researcher in psychological issues at the University of Sydney (Barton et al. 2015). There are four other authors listed.

This paper addresses the problem of mental health in a rural and remote perspective, and in particular, the differences between people in urban and rural environments. The paper argues that men in remote and rural locations suffer higher rates of mental health issues than in urban areas whereas there are no discernible differences in women. In addition, the paper comments on the lack of data assessed for people living in remote or rural areas vis-à-vis those in urban areas and suggests that the rates of mental health and psychosocial issues are much higher than what is currently published.

The main point the authors make is that data is insufficient in the rural and remote areas of Australia for mental health issues. They suggest that there has been a preponderance of research conducted in urban settings and that the seriousness of mental health issues in rural and remote areas is underestimated. They further suggest that alcohol and drug abuse in these regions are higher than in urban areas due a combination of remoteness and lack of access to care.

The authors reported on a literature survey conducted by the Audit of Disability Research in Australia between 2000 and 2013. This survey was able to draw the conclusion that mental health issues in remote and regional areas are misrepresented and under-reported. This conclusion was derived by graphing the data received from all areas statistically and analysing the output. They further found that the target groups of the audit, namely women and Indigenous Australians lacked “any significant focus” (Barton et al. 2015 p.38) when it came to much of the data.

While this audit was being undertaken, the federal government introduced the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). The authors suggest that the NDIS will assist in providing new and improved services to regional and remote Australia, as it will replace a number of state-based and non-profit based organisations and schemes. One issue the authors found while investigating the audit was the differing nomenclature and terms used to describe various mental health issues and the people who suffer them. They further suggest that the unity provided by the NDIS will remove any barriers and impediments created by the use of differing and sometimes contradictory terms.

The second paper was published in the journal Police Practice and Research in August 2010 and the author is Katrina Clifford, a PhD candidate at the University of Canberra.

The first essential issue that this paper addresses is since the general closure of mental health institutions throughout Australia, there has been an increase in the arrest and incarceration of people with mental health issues (Clifford 2010). The paper then deals with the subject of police and the methods employed by them to handle subjects with mental health ailments. There is discussion that general duties police officers have little or no training with which to deal with people who have mental health problems.

The author cites research that 20% of the Australian public in 2007 have a mental disorder of some nature (Australian Bureau of Statistics, cited in Clifford 2010) and since the deinstitutionalisation of the mentally ill, the public health sector and the police have had additional burdens placed upon them. There is also discussion that the various police forces in Australia are not institutionally equipped to deal with people with mental health issues.

In the paper, the author has compiled research from different areas including other refereed journals, government publications and reports, and police reports. This research has been collated to give a comprehensive overview of the mental health issues modern Australians are facing and the police and governmental responses to the issues. The paper takes a somewhat bleak view in that there are a myriad of shortcomings and bureaucratic obstacles to achieving a universal approach to mental health, particularly as dealt with by the various police forces of Australia.

The author has presented Australian police forces as generally being reluctant to be at the front-line of mental health primary intervention. The paper also discusses a number of fatal incidents where police responded to violent people with mental health issues. In spite of the reluctance of police, the paper suggests that there is a widespread cross-jurisdiction training regime in place which endeavours to teach police the rudiments of mental health education, and how to approach affected people in crisis situations, and although there is a pessimistic view throughout the paper that enough has not been done yet, the author lauds positive and proactive steps taken by police authorities to date.


Barton, R, Robinson, T, Llewellyn, G, Thorncraft, K & Smidt, A 2015, ‘Rural and remote perspectives on disability and mental health research in Australia: 2000–2013’, Advances in Mental Health, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 30–42

Clifford, K 2010, ‘The thin blue line of mental health in Australia’, Police Practice and Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 355-370

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