Ocean travel without a boat

Journal of Peter Greenwell

Tag: australia (page 1 of 4)

The efficacy of Richmond Valley Council’s Food and Garden Organics Collection scheme

A report I did for uni. As always, do not cite any part of this in your own work, as it’s not peer-reviewed or authoritative. A PDF of this report can be found here (725 KB)


On the thirteenth of June of 2016, Richmond Valley Shire Council in northern New South Wales introduced the Food and Organics collection scheme. This scheme was first implemented in the Casino district on that date, and then other parts of the shire such as Evans Head, Coraki and Woodburn on the twentieth of June.
The scheme was introduced as a response to perceived wastages and environmental concerns disposing of organic waste in normal landfilling. It was decided that these wastes would be of better service to the community if they were composted, returning the product to the soil as mulch and compost. This composting is performed at the Lismore Recycling and Recovery Centre.

To facilitate this scheme, the shire council delivered to each resident a small kitchen caddy and a roll of biodegradable liner bags. When filled, the bags are then placed in a green-coloured recycle bin (a “wheelie” bin) for pickup by the council’s garbage disposal service. This larger bin is for all organic waste, namely grass clipping, leaves, cardboard and other compostable products.

The aim of this paper is to examine the efficacy of the collection and composting process in comparison with traditional landfilling methods. It will review not only the environmental impact industrial scale composting has, but also the financial aspect, and whether composting is cost effective vis-à-vis with landfilling.

Keywords: composting, methane, landfills, Richmond Valley Council, recycling
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A day out in Loadstone

My wife, my youngest daughter and I went for a drive to Loadstone today, a location about 25 kilometres north of Kyogle along the Lions Road for her equine psychotherapy.  It is very scenic country, and i’m familiar with it as I had relatives living a bit farther south of this location at Mt. Lion.

The horse my daughter drew

Millie the horse

The horses

The horses.

Pine plantation

Pine plantation

The pine plantation, and McPherson's Range.

The pine plantation

Land and tree-scape

Land and tree-scape

McPherson's Range

McPherson’s Range

A Richmond Range adventure

Please do not cite this blog post in a report or paper. It’s not peer-reviewed and is simply an informal account.

Between 23 August and 26 August 2017, I attended a camp for university at Cambridge Plateau, which is part of Richmond Range National Park, approximately 35 km west of Casino. Richmond Range is a dividing point between the watersheds of the Clarence River to the west, and the Richmond River to the east. Both of these rivers are part of what gives the Northern Rivers region its name. (The Tweed River is the other one).

We made camp at the picnic area at Cambridge Plateau, which is ordinarily not legally possible, but the NPWS of NSW has given the uni special dispensation as we were a research organisation and ultimately will be benefiting the national park (and environmental science in general).

Where we were:

Area map for Richomd Range NP

Area map for Richmond Range NP (Source: Google Maps)

The picnic ground is along the ridge, with a very scenic view facing eastward, and Mt. Warning (Wollumbin) could be seen if conditions were clear. Interestingly, the picnic ground is a transition between two biogeographical areas, with dry eucalypt forest to the south, and subtropical rainforest to the north. There are two scenic walks accessible from the picnic area, a short ten minute walk, and a longer, more challenging hour-long one.

The rainforest component of the national park has achieved World Heritage listing, and the visitor’s information signs at the picnic ground state that the entire park has among the highest biodiversity in Australia. During my stay at the picnic site, a lace monitor (Varanus varius) wandered in occasionally, and a red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) was seen along the road to the south, in addition to the myriad of birds that could be heard, especially the sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) with its ear-shattering shriek.

After setting up camp, we were briefed as to the activities and projects we would undertake, then we travelled to our assigned transects (ours was in the eucalyptus forest) and laid out Elliott traps and infrared motion detector cameras. The box traps were baited with a rolled ball of oats, peanut butter and honey.

Where I set up camp:

My tent at the site

My tent at the site

I did not have a great first night. My sleeping bag, which my youngest daughter currently uses as a doona, would not zip up, so I had to use it as a blanket. This was not very successful, as the cold from the ground seeped up through the inflatable mattress and made sleep a patchy affair. The net result was I had about three hours of productive sleep. So I was in a daze a good deal of the following day. Even with a mid-morning nap, I was feeling it throughout the day.

Anyhow, after breakfast, we went back to our designated transects and checked the traps. We retrieved the SD card from the camera, and found it had exhausted its batteries overnight (it operates on 6-12 AA batteries). So we caught nothing on camera there, but we had better luck with the Elliotts. We caught five animals from 25 traps, which gave us a 20% success rate. Four of the animals were the fawn-footed melomys (Melomys cervinipes), a native rodent and one Stuart’s antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a marsupial. I never managed to get a photograph of the antechinus but here’s one of me holding a melomys. As is visible, its tail is longer than its body.

Yours truly and a captured melomys

Yours truly and a captured melomys

Like most rodents, the melomys is an omnivore, and is apparently an adept climber as one we released scurried straight up a tree. An interesting point about the antechinus is that it is semelparous, that is that the male has a single reproductive episode and then dies. The antechinus and a few related species among marsupials are the only mammals in which this occurs. As it happened, this time of year (August, late winter) is their breeding season, so the male antechinus we found was very feisty and highly-strung, and drew blood from its handler.

After checking the traps, we left them closed until the afternoon, where we re-opened them, as our programme called for trapping over two nights. Later that day we ventured down the same transects for a reptile survey, which mostly entailed us turning over logs and large branches. We saw a few reptiles, mainly small skinks and legless lizards. There were centipedes, millipedes and slaters (woodlice) as well. However our reptile count was below expectation, and we theorised this was due to low rainfall over the last month. In Casino, there has been 0.2 mm of rain in the month, which is the lowest in twenty years.

Also on the second day, we examined what bats were caught in the harp traps. The bats in question are microbats, carnivorous mammals generally smaller than their flying fox cousins. In fact, many of them are among the smallest mammals in existence. They are insectivorous, catching their prey on the wing by using echolocation. To facilitate this, many of them have elaborate ears and facial structures that have evolved for the purpose of sending and receiving the high-pitched frequencies.

The majority of echolocating microbats emit frequencies that are well above human ability to hear. We used a device known as a bat detector to hear their calls. This instrument bounces down the signal (often 40-55 kHz) to a frequency humans can hear. This little fellow below made a lot of noise while he was being measured.

The little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) having his particulars measured.

The little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) having his particulars measured.

Unfortunately, a number of captured bats died in the traps after antechinuses climbed into the trap receptacle and ate them. All up, we captured four different species of bat, and all surviving animals were released the following night.

In the evening of the second day we went spotlighting along the road near our transects. The object of this was to survey nocturnal arboreal mammals such as gliders and possums, and other creature we could see, such as owls. Along our transect, which was 250 m in length, we saw three greater gliders (Petauroides volans) in total. This species is renowned for simply staring back at a spotlight, whereas other glider species, and possums, tend to avert their eyes or get out of the way of the beam. The gliders we saw were 25-40 m high in the branches of the Eucalyptus trees upon which they feed. Their yellowish-white eyeshine is rather striking in the nighttime darkness.

I borrowed one of uni’s sleeping bags, and a neighbour gave me a blanket. That night, I slept infinitely better and woke on the third day feeling much happier about things. Firstly, we performed a bird survey along our transects, 20 m in from the road. Didn’t see much, but certainly heard a lot, especially the omnipresent belling from colonies of bell miners (Manorina melanophrys). These birds are problematical in the Australian bush, as they feed on the exudations (lerps) of psyllid bugs (a type of sap-sucking true bug of the insect order Hemiptera). They don’t eat the psyllids, but their territorial nature chases away smaller birds that do. The upshot of this is that psyllids flourish, and trees die from sap deprivation. This is known as Bell Miner Associated Dieback and is an increasing problem in the forests these birds dwell in. They are cryptic to see in the canopy, as their colouration matches the mottled green to yellow leaves of Eucalyptus well. Definitely one of the heard rather than seen creatures of the wild.

We then checked our Elliotts and found two female Stuart’s antechinuses, and two male bush rats (Rattus fuscipes). The latter is a very common species in the wild of Australia, though it avoids urbanised areas, which sets it apart behaviour wise from the exotic black rat (Rattus rattus). Unfortunately, I didn’t get a picture of either of these species. Since our ground-dwelling mammal capture regime was to last only two nights, we took the traps up, as well as the SD cards from the cameras.

Later that day, we had briefings on career paths for environmental scientists as well as an opportunity to draft the introduction and methods of the report that will come out of the camp. That evening we went on the second of our spotlighting excursions, but this time we performed it along a rainforest transect. Alas, we saw nothing, but this is to be expected. While rainforests are often touted as centres of biodiversity, this is largely true in the floral and invertebrate sense. Most of Australia’s arboreal mammals do not dwell in rainforest trees. However, there was incredible epiphyte growth in some of these rainforest trees, with one specimen almost covered in staghorn ferns (Platycerium superbum).

That night, the uni’s sleeping bag unzipped and wouldn’t re-zip properly, so I had a mixed experience. If/when I go camping again, I will definitely apply lessons learned. Before I went to bed, I had a chance to show off my star-gazing skills with a few people, pointing out Aquarius and Capricorn, et al, to them.

Rainforest habitat north of the picnic area

Rainforest habitat north of the picnic area

After one very cold night, we performed another bird survey, with much the same results. To add insult to injury, the zipper on my coat broke, making this outing a chilly enterprise. Then it was time for pack up, and we got everything in order to move out, leaving the picnic area and the environment the way we found it. All rubbish was taken out with us. There were no bins at the site, only two composting toilets, and as I mentioned at the beginning, camping is not usually done here hence the lack of facilities. So I was four days without a shower, and I enjoyed having one when I got home.

Withal, it was an enjoyable and educational experience, despite the cold and personal under-preparation for camping.  It’s certainly given me incentive to look forward to a career in environmental science, and seeing as I’m halfway through the last subject I need to graduate, that reality isn’t far away.


Icehouse – Primitive Man

I remember buying this on vinyl back on 1982, and hoping Icehouse had kept up the rocking new wave, borderline hard rock they did on their debut. Nope, no sirree. This is synth heavy, Linn drum-machine laden and very representative of the era it was released. Only one song here really rocks, and overseas releases didn’t even include it, and that’s Break These Chains.

The band that recorded the debut no longer existed, and though John Lloyd was still part of the band, he didn’t drum on this, and it’s all via  machine. More than any other record, this one could be labelled a Davies solo project. Davies still thinks he’s some lovechild of Ferry and Bowie here, and he never really sounded like himself on a record till Big Wheel, and that’s perhaps debatable too.

Bare-faced influences aside, Primitive Man grew on me. Apart from the obvious songs that were released as singles, there are tracks that have a slightly eerie edge even if Davies hadn’t intended such a thing. More than any other Icehouse album, this one goes into mystic places, if only briefly. The whole album has an “abandoned” feel to it, like it’s the soundtrack to empty, open spaces where humans no longer exist, and it’s not just Great Southern Land that conveys that. There’s only one filler track here and that’s Mysterious Thing, which sounds like a B-side. The remainder of the record varies for dreamy to hard rocking. It’s a widely ranging thing, but held back by production excesses and Davies’ imitating his favourite performers.

There’s a case to be made this is Icehouse’s second best record, though Big Wheel may have something to say there.

Choice cuts: Trojan Blue, Break these Chains, Street Cafe

howlers yo

The Church – Sing-Songs

I didn’t know this EP existed at first. I saw the band live late 1984 and they played a song that I’d never heard before. It wasn’t something off the forthcoming Heyday either, as they hadn’t started work on that. It wasn’t one of their obscure B-sides like Bus Driver or In a Heartbeat, as I knew those. That song, as I later learned, was In This Room.

I actually called EMI in Sydney and asked them about The Church’s discography, and the polite young lady who spoke to me promptly told me I’d missed Sing-Songs, a 5 track EP they’d released between The Blurred Crusade and Seance. A 5 track EP that went nowhere in the charts and died a natural death.

I lucked out and found a vinyl copy in a K-Mart of all places and fell over myself getting home to play it. I loved it. There wasn’t a truly weak track on it, apart from maybe the Simon & Garfunkel cover which I can live without.

In This Room is the highlight, but the other three Church originals are almost as stellar. Ancient History with its smarmy lyrics, the Night is Very Soft with its quiet surge (and red serge settee!) and the jangly A Different Man.

The only hang-up with Sing-Songs is the garage band-level production, which renders four out of the five songs sounding like demo outtakes. I am a Rock was done by Bob Clearmountain so it at least sounds fuller, whatever its other merits.

Choice cuts: all five of them. Go forth and dig them, yo!

sing songs


Models – Out of Mind Out of Sight

After the consistently catchy and funky The Pleasure of Your Company, Models hit the Australian big-time with this record. And big-time it is. If there ever was a record that summarises the production excesses of the 80s, here it is folks. Practically every song is drowned in thunderous drums courtesy of Australian go-to producer Mark Opitz. Nick Launay (another 80s go-to man) had given the previous record a hard edge that suited the keyboard/bass foundations of the band. Opitz on this platter just turns everything up and its a reverberating mess. Even on slower tracks like These Blues, the production gets in the way.

It’s not all Opitz’s fault. Reggie Lucas did Big on Love and its drum sound, if anything, is even more bombastic.

The title track was the biggie, but for mine, it rates near the bottom in its worth. It’s a relic, and what sounded like a great tune back then just makes one roll their eyes in this age.

But, production aside, this album’s prime issue is a distinct lack of decent material. It’s absolutely jam-crammed with filler, with rubbish like Ringing Like a Bell and Seeing is Believing, which sound like studio outtakes. Even Cold Fever, released as a single, sounds like a B-side to a B-side.

Well, this was the band’s apex and they went nowhere fast after this. The next (and last) record is even more packed with filler than this one, and suffers bing-bang production blammo as well. Utterly faceless and the band called it quits not long after – and so they should have.

Models were great white funksters once and deserve some renewed interest. Just end your listening excursion at Pleasure of your Company and things will be fine.

Choice cuts: These Blues, Stormy Tonight, King of Kings. Everything else is effluent.

a flavell howler


INXS – Kick

INXS were a singles band, let’s make that clear straight away. Their albums – all of them – are loaded with filler to a lesser or greater degree. Sometimes they’re jam packed with terrible songs that don’t even qualify for filler status. Kick is the one platter in their discography that has the least amount of both filler and dreck.

In that regard, it’s a step up from Listen Like Thieves and it’s certainly a mile ahead of anything released afterwards. There’s only two songs on this record I regard as filler – Tiny Daggers and Calling All Nations. And, why oh why, did they feel the need to re-record The Loved One? Their Deluxe Records era cover is just as good.

All the aside, this is the culmination of their Stonesy pub-rock/new wave incarnation. They perfected this sound, something they’d increasingly been working on since Shabooh Shoobah. I Need You Tonight, New Sensation, Devil Inside, Mystify are all great tracks.

But this is their last great record, with “great” being relative. The 90s weren’t kind to pub rock bands and INXS never did quite wrap their heads around the sounds and trends that decade generated.


Honours critical review – gothic literature

An essay I did for uni

Review of Danielle Carr’s (2013) Master of Arts thesis Psychological Reflections on Post – Modernist Gothic Literature

The nature of my research is to place the traditional forms of Gothic and dark romantic literature in a contemporary Australian setting, taking the genres away from their archetypal settings of castles, mansions and inserting them into the everyday, workaday world of the Northern Rivers of New South Wales. Danielle Carr’s thesis is titled Psychological Reflections on Post – Modernist Gothic Literature and her research parallels mine as she explored the psychological themes behind Gothic and dark romantic fiction, and separated them from their settings, thus enabling Gothic and dark romantic fiction to be effectively placed in any location. Additionally, Carr’s research includes creative components integrated into the thesis, which is a strategy I will use in my own research.

In spite of the title of Carr’s thesis including postmodernism, there is actual little emphasis devoted to this artistic movement. On the contrary, in form and shape, Carr adheres to traditional narrative structures in her creative works, with clear beginnings and endings, and no unreliable narrator techniques are used. In fact, as Patricia Waugh states, modernism is a fiction of consciousness, where postmodernism is one concerning itself with the fictionality of a text (Waugh cited in Nicol 2009, p. xvii). So postmodernism as a literary style is less interested in the working of the psyche or the soul than it is on the nature of the very text itself, using this definition. Another definition is that postmodernism is a blending of all styles to deliberately defy classification (Abrams 1999, p. 168). There is none of this experimentation in the thesis as Carr concentrates altogether on the nature of the Gothic and the dark romantic being fictions about the conscious. She makes a distinction between Gothic and dark romantic literature, stating that the latter is a subset of the former (Carr 2013, p. 5) and quotes Poe’s Ligeia as a salient example. She suggests that the seminal difference between the two is that dark romanticism features visionary, poetical writing. However, the distinction is often blurred as Dinçer points out that both are fictions of dark dreariness, usually concluding in an unhappy manner (Dinçer 2010, p. 220).

The methods Carr used were composing three creative works of varying length, The Conservatory, Psychosis and The Lady of Tangiers, then writing an exegesis on each, with an eye to psychological theory and how it can be applied to Gothic and dark romantic fiction. Carr worked alone on this thesis and there is no acknowledgement to any other contributor apart from a bibliography listing her sources. Psychological Reflections on Post – Modernist Gothic Literature draws heavily on the psychological theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung (Carr 2013, p.3), particularly Jung’s theories of Self and what Jung called the archetypes: psyche and soul (Stevens 1994) in which Carr identifies as being critically important to Gothic literature. She argues that the literature itself would be ineffective without psychological insight or the application of psychological theory. The literary symbolism in Jung’s theories has been utilised in Carr’s first creative work in the thesis, The Conservatory, is a short piece the author has constructed in a deliberately antiquated style. Within, Carr implements Jung’s archetypes and his theories on the mandala – the circle. The mandala, according to Jung, was emblematic of the what he termed the “psychic transformation” (Jung cited in Stevens 1994). Carr uses this symbolism in her short story to illustrate how a mental state can come full circle. The Conservatory also deals with the matter of the Faustian bargain, where the protagonist is searching for the elixir of youth. Carr cites Goethe’s work as being seminal to the Gothic canon (Goethe cited in Carr 2013, p. 13) and she has her protagonist seemingly forsake his life for the pursuit of the elixir.

In her second creative work, Psychosis, Carr again applies the psychological theories of Freud with regards to the repression of bad memories (Freud cited in Carr 2013, p. 27). In her creative work, Carr suggests that repressed memories are not a natural mental state and there had to be division between the conscious and unconscious. The character of Melinda in Psychosis is redirecting her suppressed memories into “anxiety hysteria” (Carr 2013, p. 28) which Carr suggests is a subset of psychoanalysis. The hidden or obscured memory aspect posits itself into Gothic literature in terms of the unstated or understated, which Carr exemplifies with her mentioning of du Maurier’s Rebecca (du Maurier 1938) in which the titular character is deceased but exerts a palpable and dark influence throughout the novel (Carr 2013, p. 5). So, Carr suggests that what is figuratively buried beneath the surface can be an effective ploy in Gothic and dark romantic literature.

Her third creative work, The Lady of Tangiers, is a novelette that draws upon Freud’s theories of the uncanny (Freud cited in Carr 2013, p. 49). Here, a unrequited love story is made ominous by the environment itself: the Sahara Desert. The visitors to this harsh land are a group of English aristocrats going for a sortie from the safer confines of the Moroccan city of Tangiers (or Tangier as it is more commonly known). Among the sands and the harsh winds, they encounter the supernatural and the romantic interest of the protagonist vanishes. Carr in her exegesis of this story makes comparisons with the colonial experiences of the British in Australia: the strangers in a strange land trope, thus shifting the genre of the story into the postcolonial. She states that Gothic fiction set in lands that have been colonised are by their very nature haunted (Mafe cited in Carr 2013, p. 50) which suggests that the land itself remembers or is capable of sentient deed. This is an important facet to my research as I intend to employ a similar methodology with my own creative work: imbuing the land itself with a slumbering malevolence.

Much of the thesis is a work of juxtaposition and intertextuality; comparing her creative works to previously published material and placing them into the Gothic and dark romantic canon. Interestingly, she makes comparisons between The Conservatory and previously published material insofar as stating that the garden is a place of innocence (Carr 2013, p.17) and that this innocence can be inverted by the application of Gothic and dark romantic tropes, especially those sourced from philosophical literature such as Jung and Freud. Thus, I feel that Carr is making a point here in her thesis that Gothic fiction is largely one of upending order and completion, and replacing it with disorder and unresolved issues. This is a crucial key in my own research as other works I have studied have drawn similar conclusions (Chudy, Cook & Costello 2010).

To summarise, Carr makes repeated references to psychology and symbolism and their importance in Gothic and dark romantic literature. There is stress made that these forms of literature depend heavily upon the usage of symbol and metaphor for their potency. Indeed, Carr draws a conclusion through exegesis and exposition that Gothic fiction would not work without such artifice. At its very core, both forms of fiction are works of psychology, where the fear and dread, or the sin and guilt, are sui generis. I do not believe that Carr has made a totally effective use of her fiction to convey the points she is making as all three works are in need of editing, as there are numerous phrasing and dialogue issues with them. Regardless, the core ideas are firmly there and the exegeses are sound, providing further avenues into deeper research. In summary, this thesis succeeds as an article of research into Gothic and dark romantic fiction, particularly in an Australian setting.


Abrams, M 1999, A Glossary of Literary Terms (7th ed.), Thomson Publishing, New York

Carr, D 2013, ‘Psychological Reflections on Post – Modernist Gothic Literature’, MA thesis, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria

Chudy, T, Cook, N & Costello, M 2010, A ‘ruined or fractured’ sublime: voice, identity and agency in reading and writing the gothic/noir in subtropical regional Australia, Strange Bedfellows: Refereed Conference Papers of the 15th Annual AAWP Conference, 2010

Dinçer, F 2010, The light and dark Romantic features in Irving, Hawthorne and Poe, The Journal of International Social Research, 3(10), pp. 218-224

du Maurier, D 1938, Rebecca, Victor Gollancz, London

Nicol, B 2009, The Cambridge introduction to postmodern fiction, Cambridge University Press, New York

Stevens, A 1994, Jung, a very short introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Measuring Trees and Forests. Practical exercise 1: Plane survey

A paper I did for uni back in 2013


On 2 April, 2013, a plane survey was conducted of a mixed species rainforest plantation on private property at Wollongbar, northern New South Wales. The plane survey was undertaken by walking around the perimeter of the plantation and taking measurements from one survey point tree to the next tree using a variety of instruments. The data was then taken back to a computer laboratory at Southern Cross University, entered and analysed. A conclusion was derived that it is an accurate and precise method to measure the perimeter of a forest stand, but is dependent upon observational acuity and familiarity with the instruments.


The aim of the plane survey was to accurately assess the external boundaries of the plantation and to familiarise students with the concepts of a plane survey, and in the usage of measuring instruments and recording and calculating methods. Previous surveys have been conducted at this location and the scientific environment is fairly well established. The plane survey is so named as the mapping is represented on a flat piece of paper, the plane (West, 2009).

The survey was performed on private property, “Pamplemousse Park”, located in a rural area in Wollongbar, a town approximately 13 kilometres east of the regional centre Lismore, in northern New South Wales .

The plantation was on sloped terrain, with the slope generally ascending toward the northwest. The soils appear to be of the Ferrosol variety, although no analysis was performed. Two separate tracks sub-divided the plantation into three unequal sections. A variety of sub-tropical rainforest species have been planted including Elaeocarpus grandis, Agathis robusta, Podocarpus elatus, Araucaria bidwilli, A. cunninghamii, Syzygium moorei and Argyrodendron trifoliolatum. There was a considerable amount of saprophytic fungi present amongst the ground litter, predominantly of the shelf fungi variety though there were some jelly fungi present on log and branch detritus.

The plantation has an irregular shape, and is surrounded by tracts of macadamia trees growing in orchards, with the species either Macadamia tetraphylla or M. integrifolia which are the two commercially raised for their nuts in Australia. These tracts are not a part of the plantation and do not figure any further in this report.


The students were divided into three groups. Each group, numbering from three to four members, were given a prismatic compass, a clinometer and a 100 metre measuring tape. Results were recorded on a printed pro forma. The boundary of the plantation was determined by choosing trees that were on the periphery and were clearly on the apex of a bend or at an equidistant point between two such apices. From tree to tree, the distance between was measured, and the bearing in degrees (from north) was recorded. The slope angle between the trees was measured and this was achieved by using the clinometer at the measuring tree and taking a reading of the foot of the target tree, with consideration given to the height of the measurement-taker. At each successive tree, a back bearing was recorded to the previous tree, which under ideal situations would be 180 degrees but this was not often the case in real conditions. Where the survey intersected the tracks, the points were taken from the corners of the tracks (Southern Cross University, 2013). The area within the tracks was not counted for statistical purposes .

Only live trees were considered when establishing the boundary. Dead trees on the periphery and other non-tree flora were not counted. These were surveyed around and only the actual planted area was counted (Southern Cross University, 2013). Once the initial perimeter was surveyed, the two tracks within the plantation were measured for length, width and slope angle.

In the university laboratory, the results were collated and entered into Microsoft Excel. The data were tabulated into fields thusly: survey point, forward bearing, back bearing, slope angle, and slope distance. From these data a variety of means and distances were obtained using established mensuration formulae (West, 2009).


In the laboratory, the data were analysed using a variety of published formulae (West, 2009). Microsoft Excel was used to perform all calculations and analyses and a map was constructed using the in-built scatter plot function. Figure 1 shows the derived map.

plane survey

Figure 1. Map of the plantation derived from the plane survey

Each of the plotted points in the figure represent one surveyed tree. As can be seen, the beginning and end points do not intersect. There was an observational error for part of the walk around survey in which one of the students misread the compass readings. This was later amended both in situ and in the laboratory. Even with these corrections, there is still a reasonably sized error. The method used to survey the perimeter has an innate and variable lack of precision due to human error, greater than using more sophisticated methods such as laser rangefinders, global positioning systems and theodolites. However, it has been suggested that where a highly precise map is not required, the usage of handheld compasses and clinometers, etc, is acceptable (West, 2009).

The lack of precision was most obvious with the results found for the closing distance and close error. The end result for the plane survey was an error of 14 metres in 628.5 metres measured. This can be represented as being one metre away from the true figure for every 44.8 metres measured. This figure has been derived by using a formula that can be found on page 130 of Tree and Forest Measurement, 2nd Edition, by West. Future surveys would be expected to be undertaken with a greater deal of precision due to the increased familiarity with the techniques and the instruments used. Continual cross-checking for errors as the survey was being walked would also be useful.


The plane survey method to measure the perimeter of a forest stand generally gives a precise and true reckoning, however this is dependent upon observational skill and the instruments used. In the case with the plantation at Pamplemousse Park, there was a mostly accurate reading, and the fundamental principles of the plane survey were both understood in regards to utility and calculation. Further practice is required to achieve more accurate results.


Southern Cross University (2013). Practical exercise 1: Plane survey. (Lecture notes).

West, P.W. (2009). Tree and Forest Measurement (2nd ed.). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag

Postmodernist structures in Australian fiction (essay)

An essay I did for uni.

My life as a fake

Australian author Peter Carey’s novel My life as a fake was first published in Australia in 2003 by Random House (Carey 2003). It is a take on the fake literary identity theme, with an author deliberately creating an identity for the purposes of fooling either the reading public or the literati. At its heart, it is a pastiche of the Ern Malley controversy which was a literary imposture from the 1940s; a case of two men wishing to debunk modernist poetry by proving that gibberish was not only publishable but widely admired (Nolan & Dawson 2004, p. x) and according to Nolan and Dawson, this controversy has remained the touchstone literary hoax in Australia (ibid), despite intervening hoaxes such as the Demidenko case.

Not only is it a creative comment upon literary hoaxes, but it is a work of intertextuality. My life as a fake references and pays homage to not only the Ern Malley hoax, but Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus (Shelley 1969) by having the invented character of Bob McCorkle take on a life of its own. As Kampmark states, the character Chubb did not expect his creation to come to life (Kampmark 2015) instead and like Ern Malley, McCorkle was devised to ridicule an object of torment. McCorkle, like Frankenstein’s monster, takes out its ire on its creator. At one point in the book, he kidnaps Chubb and takes him “quite far north” (Carey 2003 p. 76) and Chubb, understandably, fears for his safety. As an aside, the realisation of Bob McCorkle where he becomes an embodiment of Chubb’s innermost urges and desires pays homage to the Tibetan Buddhist concept of tulpa or “thoughtform” (David-Neel 1929) where through dint of extraordinary faith and belief, an independent emanation can arise from an individual and live their own life. Like McCorkle, the tulpa can also prove challenging to be rid of.

According to Ashcroft, Peter Carey has been fascinated by the concepts of “the narrative function of truth and the ambivalence of lies” his entire writing career (Ashcroft 2004, p28). My life as a fake is a prime exemplification of what is truth or lie. Throughout the work, much is made of whether the characters are living in the real world, or if they are figments. Even the embodied McCorkle may or may not have any real truthful presence. This takes the hoax of Ern Malley to a literary, logical conclusion – that McCorkle is as real as Ern Malley if the reader is willing to believe it., but subjectively real in Australian way. This, according to Ashcroft, is what binds both the Ern Malley experience and My life as a fake together. Right down to the almost shared characters of Vogelsang and Vogelesang, which was the spelling used in Carey’s book (Carey 2005, p56). Vogelsang was the name of the South Australian police officer involved in the prosecution for indecency of the two men behind the Ern Malley hoax (Ashcroft 2004, p. 30). There is something quintessentially Australian about poking fun at authority figures in strange or off-handed ways, especially when the lines between truth and lie become blurred or obfuscated. Ashcroft further states that while the oeuvre of Ern Malley has engaged critics and literary analysts, “his” work remains purely textual, and “demonstrates the textuality of all lives” (Ashcroft 2004, p31). This is a salient endorsement of intertextuality, and shows that no work of fiction can be readily digested in isolation. Later in his paper, Ashcroft suggests that Ern Malley has become as tangible in “his” own way as the character of Bob McCorkle from My life as a fake (Ashcroft 2004, p.32).

So, to summarise My life as a fake, it is both a work of intertextuality and the perception of truths. Using unconventional narrative techniques such as time jumping and pastiche, it is a knotty and thought-provoking take on one of Australia’s signal literary hoaxes. It certainly fits into the postmodernist canon, as it makes no attempt to conform to realism or employs linear narrative of any kind, and in fact, appears to utterly reject such forms. Also, it is a work of Australianness without ever resorting to jingoism, cultural cringes or being self-referential. To be sure, as one reads the novel, there is the sensation that it could not have been anything other than Australian.

The deadman dance

That deadman dance is the third novel by Perth-based writer, Kim Scott, a man who has Noongar heritage, one of the Indigenous peoples who inhabit the south-western corner of Western Australia (Scott 2010). Although as with My life as a fake this novel uses pastiche and time-jumping, the emphasis with That deadman dance is the personal, not abstract humour and homage. It is a work of idealism destroyed, of dreams and visions ruined by colonial rapacity. It reinvents in its own way, the European concept of “settlement” and redresses this word by presenting it from the critical eyes of those being settled. The title itself bespeaks Noongar belief – the white men are “dead men”, returned from the other world, where pale people are their ghosts or revenants. The character Bobby witnesses the white soldiers drill, giving rise to the “dead men dance” (Brewster 2011, p61), something that Scott himself stated in an interview was intentional (Brewster 2012, p.231)

Identity is one of the key concepts in That Deadman Dance. The initial us and them, colonial and native, becomes increasingly blurred as characters began to slide into and out of each other’s culture and lives, but in the finish it is clear an unequal power relationship occurs, a state that exists down to the present day. At the end of the novel, Bobby thinks he has won over the white man with his dance; the dance he thinks could go “around a spear and make a song to calm any man (Scott 2010, p394) but it bespeaks failure. Despite the best intentions of those who came before, the new relationship between white man and Indigenous Australian will be asymmetric, favouring the former heavily and this too has carried into the present day. As the band Goanna sang in their song Solid Rock in 1982:

Well they were standin’ on the shore one day
Saw the white sails in the sun
Wasn’t long before they felt the sting
White man, white law, white gun (Howard 1982)

That deadman dance does not present this conquest is such overly stark terms, though the net result is tragically the same. Instead, the novel is couched in a poetical postmodernist fashion that reads as a dream sequence in many places. The Noongar concept of family is distinguished from the British by the character of Bobby, who explains that the Noongar have a relationship not only with their fellow humans, familial or not, but with the land and the life that lives upon it. Thus, according to Brewster, there is deep sense of betrayal and melancholy when the Noongar divest themselves of their white man clothes, putting an end to cordial relations with the colonisers (Brewster 2011, p.67). Although key characters like Dr Cross made efforts to empathise and understand the Noongar, others like Geordie Chaine saw them as nothing other than savages. Chaine, for all his bluff amiability with Bobby, can never have friendships based upon parity, despite Bobby thinking of him as a babin, an “uncle-friend” (Scott 2010, p. 157).

The character of Dr Cross is cast as the idealist, according to Hughes-d’Aeth. With Bobby’s parents dead presumably from the tuberculosis or smallpox the British have brought with them, Cross stays on and plays the intermediary, making reparation for the British presence (Hughes-d’Aeth 2014). He is the mirror of Bobby, another idealist, and perhaps through the actions of both men, there could have been conciliation between the two cultures. Cross’s death effectively nullifies this early on into the novel though Bobby’s idealism persists.

To close, That deadman dance and My life as a fake are both works of Australian origin that concern Australia in markedly different ways. The latter is a novel of playful pastiche, contorting and rearranging narrative forms and truth perceptions into something definitely postmodernist; an abnegation of realism. That deadman dance is equally as postmodernist but engages in realism almost paradoxically. There is no doubt that characters within are real and not fallacious figments, and they are also living entities and not embodiments. It is writing back, a rejoinder to European history and tale-telling, and a redressing of misapplied conceptions and cherished European beliefs.


Ashcroft, B 2004, ‘Reading Carey Reading Malley’, Australian Literary Studies, 21(4), pp. 28-39

Brewster, A 2011, ‘Whiteness and Indigenous Sovereignty in Kim Scott’s That Deadman Dance’, Journal of the European Association of Studies on Australia, 2(2), pp. 60-71

Brewster, A 2012, ‘Can You Anchor a Shimmering Nation State via Regional Indigenous Roots?’, Cultural Studies Review, 18(1), pp. 228-246

Carey, P 2003, ‘My life as a fake’, Random House, Sydney

David-Neel, A 1929, ‘Magic and Mystery in Tibet’, Dover, New York

Howard, S 1982, ‘Solid Rock’, audio recording, WEA Australia

Hughes-d’Aeth, T 2014, ‘For a long time nothing happened: Settler colonialism, deferred action and the scene of colonization in Kim Scott’s That Deadman Dance’, The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 2014, pp. 1-13

Kampmark, N 2015, ‘Monstrous (in)authenticity: Text and identity in Peter Carey’s My life as a fake’, Književnost i Kultura, (5)2

Nolan, M & Dawson, C 2004, ‘Who’s who?; hoaxes, imposture and identity crises in Australian literature’, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, pp v-xx

Scott, K 2010, ‘That deadman dance’, Picador, Sydney

Shelley, M 1969, ‘Frankenstein; Or, The Modern Prometheus’, Oxford University Press, Oxford

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